Phonetic Transcription of Spanish

This transcription system is mostly for transcribing place names, and also for writing Spanish words and names in the Arabic and Cyrillic systems. When writing Spanish words that are not place names in the Latin Alphabet, then original Spanish spelling is used.

Transcribed words should be accented like the original Spanish word. Thus, Cyapas “Chiapas” should be accented on the first a, rather than on the last vowel as in native Bakom words.

The Spanish phoneme will be shown on the left in slashes //, with the Bakom transcription on the right in angle brackets ⟨⟩.

/a/ > ⟨a⟩

/ai/ > ⟨ay⟩

/au/ > ⟨aw⟩

/e/, /ei/, /je/ > ⟨e⟩

/we/, /wei/ > ⟨we⟩

/i/ > ⟨i⟩

/o/, /ou/, /wo/ > ⟨o⟩

/oj/ > ⟨uy⟩

/u/ > ⟨u⟩

/m/ > ⟨m⟩

/n/ > ⟨n⟩

/ɲ/ > ⟨ny⟩

/ŋ/ > ⟨ng⟩

/p/ > ⟨p⟩

/t/ > ⟨t⟩

/t͡ʃ/ > ⟨c⟩

/k/ > ⟨k⟩

/b/ > ⟨b⟩

/d/ > ⟨d⟩, ⟨t⟩ (at the end of a word)

/ʝ/, /ʎ/ > ⟨y⟩

/g/ > ⟨g⟩

/f/ > ⟨f⟩

/s/, /θ/ > ⟨s⟩

/x/ > ⟨h⟩

/l/ > ⟨l⟩

/ɾ, r/ > ⟨r⟩ (not written unless before a vowel)

An unstressed /ǝ/ may be pronounced to break up consonant clusters.

Examples:

Barcelona > Baselona (baselóna)

Madrid > Madrit (madrít)

Valencia > Balensya (balénsya)

Guerrero > Gerero (geréro)

Seville > Sebiye (sebíye)

Córdoba > Kodoba (kódoba)

Gijón > Hihon (hihón)

Zacatecas > Sakatekas (sakatékas)

Puebla > Pwebla (pwébla)

Hidalgo > Idalgo (idálgo)

Chiapas > Cyapas (cyápas)

Tlaxcala > Tlaskala (tlaskála)

Guadalajara > Gwadalahara (gwadalahára)

Monterrey > Montere (monteré)

Buenos Aires > Bwenos Ayres (bwénos áyres)

Bogota > Bogota (bogotá)

Santiago > Santyago (santyágo)

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Transcription of Mandarin Chinese

This transcription system is mostly for transcribing place names, and also for writing Mandarin words and names in the Arabic and Cyrillic systems. When writing Mandarin words that are not place names in the Latin Alphabet, Pinyin is used.

Here I have written the Mandarin Pinyin on the left with Bakom on the right.

Initials:

⟨b⟩ > ⟨p⟩
⟨p⟩ > ⟨p⟩
⟨m⟩ > ⟨m⟩
⟨f⟩ > ⟨f⟩
⟨d⟩ > ⟨t⟩
⟨t⟩ > ⟨t⟩

⟨n⟩ > ⟨n⟩
⟨l⟩ > ⟨l⟩
⟨g⟩ > ⟨k⟩
⟨k⟩ > ⟨k⟩
⟨h⟩ > ⟨h⟩
⟨j⟩ > ⟨c⟩
⟨q⟩ > ⟨c⟩
⟨x⟩ > ⟨s⟩
⟨zh⟩ > ⟨c⟩
⟨ch⟩ > ⟨c⟩
⟨sh⟩ > ⟨s⟩
⟨r⟩ > ⟨r⟩
⟨z⟩ > ⟨c⟩
⟨c⟩ > ⟨c⟩
⟨s⟩ > ⟨s⟩

Finals:

⟨a⟩ > ⟨a⟩
⟨e⟩ > ⟨o⟩
⟨ai⟩ > ⟨ay⟩
⟨ei⟩ > ⟨e⟩
⟨ao⟩ > ⟨aw⟩
⟨ou⟩ > ⟨o⟩
⟨an⟩ > ⟨an⟩
⟨en⟩ > ⟨on⟩
⟨ang⟩ > ⟨ang⟩
⟨eng⟩ > ⟨ong⟩
⟨ya, -ia⟩ > ⟨ya⟩
⟨yi, -i⟩ > ⟨i⟩
⟨yao, -iao⟩ > ⟨yaw⟩
⟨you, -iu⟩ > ⟨yo⟩
⟨yan, -ian⟩ > ⟨en⟩
⟨yin, -in⟩ > ⟨in⟩
⟨yang, -iang⟩ > ⟨yang⟩
⟨ying, -ing⟩ > ⟨eng⟩
⟨wa, -ua⟩ > ⟨wa⟩
⟨wu, -u⟩ > ⟨u⟩
⟨wai, -uai⟩ > ⟨way⟩
⟨wei, -ui⟩ > ⟨we⟩
⟨wan, -uan⟩ > ⟨wan⟩
⟨wen, -un⟩ > ⟨un⟩
⟨wang, -uang⟩ > ⟨wang⟩
⟨weng, -ong⟩ > ⟨ong⟩
⟨yu, -ü⟩ > ⟨yu⟩
⟨yue, -üe⟩ > ⟨yuwe⟩
⟨yun, -ün⟩ > ⟨yun⟩
⟨yuan, -üan⟩ > ⟨yuwen⟩
⟨yong, -iong⟩ > ⟨yong⟩
⟨ye, -ie⟩ > ⟨e⟩
⟨wo, -uo, -o⟩ > ⟨o⟩
⟨er⟩ > ⟨a⟩
⟨-i⟩ (after z, c, s, zh, ch, sh, r) > ⟨i⟩

Where the transcription results in a consonant followed by y or w, an unstressed vowel /ǝ/ may be pronounced to ease pronunciation.
Thus, Kwang Tong may be either /kǝˈwaŋ to̞ŋ/ or /kwaŋ to̞ŋ/.

Here are some examples:

台北 Táiběi > Tay Pe

北京 Běijīng > Pe Ceng

香港 Xiānggǎng (Hong Kong) > Syang Kang

廣東/广东 Guǎngdōng > Kwang Tong

西安 Xī’ān > Si An

雲南/云南 Yúnnán > Yun Nan

西藏 Xīzàng (Tibet) > Si Cang

哈爾濱/哈尔滨 Hā’ěrbīn (Harbin) > Ha Pin

高雄 Gāoxióng (Kaohsiung) > Kaw Syong

桃園 Táoyuán > Taw Yuwen

斗六 Dǒuliù > To Lyo

池州 Chízhōu > Ci Co

資興/资兴 Zīxīng > Ci Seng

Camka (Displacement)

Displacement (Bakom: camka, “changing place”) is a means by which a phrase is taken out of the main sentence and placed before it. This serves to change the emphasis of the sentence, in a way that’s similar to using the passive voice in English. The displaced phrase is always followed by a comma.

Usually, it is an object that is displaced, but a verb-complement phrase or a subordinate clause with wa/wan can also be displaced.

Examples without object displacement:

Ne in wa ti a wal we.
[that] [person] [PARTICLE] [show up] [PARTICLE] [choose] [way]
“Those who show up make decisions.”
Here, emphasis is placed on the action wal we “make decisions” rather than who is doing the action.

Si a gi noju e mi.
[you] [PARTICLE] [give] [disgust] [to] [me]
“You disgust me.”
In this sentence, emphasis is placed on gi noju, “disgust”, rather than the person who is disgusted.

Examples with object displacement:

We, ne in wa ti a wal.
[way], [that] [person] [PARTICLE] [show up] [choose]
“Decisions are made by those who show up.”
(literally) “The way, it’s chosen by people who show up.”
The implication here is that people who show up make decisions, but people who don’t show up don’t make decisions.

E mi, si a gi noju.
[to] [me], [you] [PARTICLE] [give] [disgust]
“Me, you disgust.”
The implication here is that the speaker mi is disgusted while someone else may not be.

Mi a i sim wa sa tomo ra yu ay, en wa sa ne ra, mi an i sim.
[I] [PARTICLE] [have] [heart] [PARTICLE] [do] [any] [thing] [because of] [love], [but] [PARTICLE] [do] [that] [thing], [I] [PARTICLE.NEGATIVE] [have] [heart]
“I am willing to do anything for love, but to do that, I am not willing.”

A phrase cannot be displaced if it is directly describing another noun. For instance, in the sentence U kitap a bo “This book is good”, the stative verb bo “good” cannot be displaced to make Bo, u kitap a “Good, this book is.”

However, if a phrase describes a verb, it can be displaced. U kitap a tebo e ne kitap “This book is better than that book” can be rephrased as E ne kitap, u kitap a tebo. “Compared with that book, this book is better”, because e ne kitap “than that book” is describing the verb tebo “better”.

Jison (phonetic transcription)

This is a system for transcription of Bakom, based on Bakom spelling.

Click on the International Phonetic Alphabet symbols in slashes // to hear them pronounced.

Vowels:

/a/ = a

// = e

/i/ = i

// = o

/u/ = u

Consonants:

/k/ = k

/t/ = t

/p/ = p

// = c

/g/ = g

/d/ = d

/b/ = b

// = j

/h/ = h

/s~ɕ/ = s

/ɕ/ = ś (The distinction between /s/ and /ɕ/ doesn’t need to be made because it is optional in pronunciation and completely determined by the following vowel, /ɕ/ only occurring before /i/ and /s/ occurring elsewhere.)

/f/ = f

/m/ = m

/n/ = n

/ŋ/ = ŋ

/l/ = l

/j/ = y

/w/ = w

/r, ɾ, ɹ/ = r

The accented syllable is indicated with an acute accent ´. So the word nosem “apart” is /nó-sem/, and the word gunong “mountain” is /gu-nóŋ/.

Syllables are divided using a hyphen. For example, the word muko “element” is /mu-kó/ and awik “whale” is /a-wík/.
A hypothetical compound awik “fish water” (from aw “water” and ik “fish”), which happens to be spelled the same as awik, would be /aw-ík/, with a glottal stop (like the sound in “uh-oh”) pronounced before ik.

Here’s some examples.

jison bakom
/ji-són ba-kóm/
“Bakom phonetic letters”

dukaw
/duk-áw/
“water pressure”

gikaw
/gi-káw/
“return” as in “give back”

dingac
/din-gác/
“ivory”

fuyaw
/fuy-áw/
“tomato”

Mi a teng ra o wa ba e dego.
/mi a teŋ ra o wa ba e de-gó/
“I’m thinking about what he/she said yesterday.”

Si an gi paw e mi.
/śi an gi paw e mi/
“You don’t frighten me.”

Wepangji jiarap (Arabic script writing system)

Bakom can be written using several alphabets. What follows are details for writing in the Arabic script (Bakom: jiarap).

Pangsekji (alphabetical order)
There are 21 letters in the Bakom Arabic alphabet. The alphabetical order is different than that of most languages which use the Arabic alphabet, and follows more closely the order of Devanagari, used to write Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, and Sanskrit.

Following is the alphabetical order with letters in brackets ⟨⟩, an IPA pronunciation guide in slashes //, and the name of each letter written in Arabic and Roman.

⟨ا ااا⟩ /a/ خيا jia
ئ ئئئ⟩ /e̞/ جیئ jie
⟨ی ییی⟩ /i, j/ جیی jii
⟨ؤ ؤؤ⟩ /o̞/ خيؤ jio
و وﻮ⟩ /u, w/ خيو jiu
ک ککک⟩ /k/ خيكا jika
⟨ت تتت⟩ /t/ خيتا jita
پ پپپ⟩ /p/ خيپا jipa
چ چچچ⟩ /tʃ/ خيچا jica
گ گگگ⟩ /g/ خيگا jiga
د⟩ /d/ خيدا jida
ب ببب⟩ /b/ خيبا jiba
ج ججج⟩ /dʒ/ خيجا jija
ه ﻫﻬ⟩ /h/ خيها jiha
س سسس⟩ /s/ خيسا jisa
ف ففف⟩ /f/ خيفا jifa
م ممم⟩ /m/ خيما jima
ن ننن⟩ /n/ خينا jina
ڠ‎⟩ /ŋ/ جیاڠ jiang
ل للل⟩ /l/ خيلا jila
ر⟩ /r/ خيرا jira

The letter ی is written without the two dots below when final or isolated, but with them when initial or medial, as in Persian.

The letter ه doesn’t occur at the end of a word, so the final form of the letter is not used. Likewise the letter ڠ doesn’t occur at the beginning of a word, so the initial form is not used.

It should be noted that the vowel-consonant sequence /uj/ is written ⟨ؤی⟩, because ⟨وی⟩ could represents /wi/.
Likewise, the sequence /iw/ is written ⟨ئو⟩, because ⟨یو⟩ represents /ju/.

Raba delmuy (compound words)
Bakom commonly uses compounds words, where multiple roots or compounding elements are combined to form new words, like English football from foot and ball.

There are a few rules for where to include spaces in compound words:

If the describing word is a stative verb, a space is written.
For instance ⟨سیم بؤ⟩ sim bo “contentment”, from ⟨سیم⟩ “heart” (a noun) and ⟨بؤ⟩ “good” (a stative verb).

Words like this are always written after a space.
For instance ⟨جی دؤمیؤ دا⟩ ji domyo da “capital letter”, where ⟨دؤمیؤ دا⟩ “large version” is written after a space because ⟨دا⟩ “large” is a stative verb.

If the compound could easily be replaced with a phrase using a stative verb such as ⟨ئ⟩ e “of/to/for” or ⟨تا⟩ ta “on” or ⟨سؤ⟩ so “as”, it is written with a space.

The compounding base ⟨ؤ⟩ o is never followed by a space.

Compounds with the prefixes ⟨نؤ⟩ no “un-, non-” or ⟨تئ⟩ te “more, -er” are treated as one compounding element for the purposes of spacing.

 

Lojipon (rules of punctuation)
The only obligatory punctuation marks are the period (Bakom: jipon hol “complete punctuation mark”) and the comma (Bakom: jipon so del “partial punctuation mark”).

The period ⟨.⟩ is used after every sentence. It is not used between letters in acronyms.

The comma ⟨،⟩ has two main uses.
One is before a subordinate clause with ⟨وا⟩ wa or ⟨وان⟩ wan. This does not mean that a pause is pronounced, but simply serves to increase readability.
(Because of formatting issues, in the following examples the period is appearing at the far right when it should be on the far left.)

می ا ؤن سی تا واک، وا گؤ می مئ وئ.
Mi a on si ta wak, wa go mi me we.
“I saw you when I was walking along the street.”

می ا با ئ سی پئ جؤ، می وان پؤ وا سا باساپان.
Mi a ba e si pe jo, mi wan po wa sa basapan.
“I told you that I don’t speak Spanish.”

The other use is between items in a list. A comma is placed after each item, akin to the Oxford Comma in English. (Note that no word translating English “and” is used.)

کؤمال ی پؤجؤنیو یؤ سیلدئ، رؤنهاو، رؤناو
komal i pojoniw yo silde, ronhaw, ronaw
“renewable resources such as sun, wind, and hydroelectric”

تؤ ین ا ی هاک کای، هام، کابؤت
To in a i hak kay, aw, ham, kabot.
“Every person has a right to food, water, shelter, and dignity.”

A comma can also be used in any other circumstance in order to mark an important division of the sentence, such as before a quotation or to interject a comment.

ؤگیجان می، وا ئ گیمئن بؤ ری دا، ا یاپ کیتاپ تا.
Ogijan mi, wa e gimen bo ri da, a yap kitap ta.
“My teacher, who is very helpful, is writing a book.”

The exclamation mark ⟨!⟩ (Bakom: jipon bepak, “command punctuation mark”) is optionally used to mark commands, which always have the particles ⟨یا⟩ ya or ⟨یان⟩ yan.

The question mark ⟨؟⟩ (Bakom: jipon bejan, “question punctuation mark”) is optionally used to mark yes-or-no questions, and questions with a question word like ⟨مؤ⟩ mo “what”.

There are also quotation marks ⟨“”⟩ (Bakom: ji mal baway “quote mark”) which are placed before and after a quotation. They are always placed within other punctuation marks.
A quote-within-a-quote uses the same quotation marks, which can result in two of the same mark, for instance ⟨””, appearing side by side.

Raba sek (Complements)

Complements (Bakom: raba sek “following word”) are words or phrases that follow verbs or verb phrases within a clause. Both noun phrases and verb phrases may be used as complements.

Noun phrases used as complements are called nominal complements (Bakom: rabanem sek “following noun”), and verb phrases used as complements are called verbal complements (Bakom: rabahan sek “following verb”).

Rabanem sek (nominal complements)
Nominal complements may only follow stative verbs. They serve to specify the meaning of the verb in some way, by indicating degree, location, possession, relationship, or other meanings. These largely depend on the meaning of the verb in question.

Some verbs may stand alone without a nominal complement, for example bo “good”, i li “powerful”, biliw “blue”. These are generally words that indicate comparable qualities; that is, there is an implied “as” in each verb; bo means not just “to be good”, but “to be as good as”, and the same goes for i li or biliw.

Other verbs need a nominal complement in order to make sense , for instance yu “because of”, yo “like”, la “onto/into/at”. These verbs tend to all be translatable with the phrase “to have a certain X”; yu is “to have a certain cause”, yo is “to have a certain likeness”, la is “to have a certain destination”.

Still others either cannot or only very rarely take a nominal complement, for example em “female”, mol “dead”, lal “asleep”. These are generally verbs that indicate (in ordinary circumstances) absolute or non-comparable qualities; you generally wouldn’t say that one person is “more” dead than another, for example.

Here are some examples of nominal complements in sentences:

Si an bo mi.
“You are not as good as me.”
The pronoun mi “I, me” is a complement of bo “to be good”.

We a co pan kenmet.
“The road is five meters wide.”
The noun phrase pan kenmet “five meters” is a complement of co “to have a certain width”.

Ra, si wa be, a ta u.
“The thing you ordered is here.”
The pronoun u “this, here” is the complement of ta “to have a certain location.”

U a yu si.
“This is because of you.”
The pronoun si “you” is the complement of the stative verb yu “to have a certain cause or reason”.

Kay a tam 10(day) in.
“The food is enough for ten people.”
The phrase 10 in “ten people” is the complement of tam “enough, sufficient”.

Belmot a do tu kenwak.
“The film lasts for two hours.”
The phrase tu kenwak “two hours” is the complement of do “to have a certain duration”.

Mat o a biliw hawnat.
“His/her eyes are sky-blue.”
The phrase hawnat “sky” is the complement of biliw “blue”, and serves to specify the meaning of the verb biliw.

Subordinate clauses (clauses with wa or wan) can also be used as nominal complements.

Kay a tam, wa gi e 10 in.
“The food is enough to feed ten people.”
The clause wa gi e 10 in “to give to ten people” is the complement of tam “enough”.

U dok a i li, wa jo gac mol mal no en muy nin delmil lit.
“This poison has the power to kill an elephant with just a few milliliters.”
The clause wa jo gac mol mal no en muy nin delmil lit “to kill an elephant with just a few milliliters” is a complement of i li “strong, powerful, potent”.

Gi sin e o, wa ba ra yo ne, a bo, wa sek, to ne wa cin.
“Letting him/her say such things is as good as agreeing it’s all true.”
The phrase wa sek, to ne wa cin “to follow (agree) that all of it is true” is a complement of bo “good”.

U delkak di nin an kim, wa go la bu.
“This little scrap of land isn’t worth going to war.”
The phrase wa go la bu “to go to war” is a complement of kim “to have a certain worth”.

Rabahan sek (verbal complements)
Verbal complements may follow a stative verb or an active verb. Only stative verbs may be used as complements. They can indicate manner, result, degree, frequency, repetition, or add to the main verb’s meaning in other ways, in a way very similar to adverbs in English.

Here are some examples of verbal complements.

O a han ce bo.
“He/she drives well.”
Bo “good, well” is a complement of han ce “to operate a vehicle, to drive”.

U a bo ri da.
“This is very good.”
The stative verb ri da “very; to be of a great degree” is a complement of bo “good”.
The stative verb ri da is actually itself composed of a verb and a complement, with ri “to be of a certain degree” and da “great, large, big”.

Ya ba nosay.
Stop speaking.” “Say no more.”
The stative verb nosay “no more, no further, not again” is a complement of ba “to speak”.

Ya gi ne ra e mi.
“Give that to me.”
The phrase e mi “to me” is a complement of gi ne ra “give that”

Da and nin
The words da (“large, great, big”) and nin (“small, little”) are used as complements for many verbs that indicate a measurable quality. Here are some examples:

muy “to be of a certain amount or number”
muy da “many, much”
muy nin “few, little”

ri “to be of a certain degree or extent”
ri da “very, high (of degree)”
ri nin “barely, low (of degree)”

co “to have a certain width”
co da “wide”
co nin “narrow”

gu “to be at a certain distance”
gu da “far”
gu nin “near”

pes “to have a certain weight”
pes da “heavy”
pes nin “light”

lam “to have a certain length/height”
lam da “long/tall”
lam nin “short”

kim “to have a certain worth”
kim da “of great worth, expensive”
kim nin “of little worth, cheap”

Wepangji jiciri (Cyrillic script writing system)

Bakom can be written using several alphabets. What follows are details for writing in the Cyrillic Alphabet (Bakom: jiciri).

Pangsek-ji (alphabetical order)
The alphabetical order is different than that of most languages which use the Cyrillic alphabet, and follows more closely the order of Devanagari, used to write Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, and Sanskrit.

Following is the alphabetical order (letters in brackets ⟨⟩: first upright capital and lowercase, then italic capital and lowercase), with an IPA pronunciation guide in slashes // and the name of each letter written in Cyrillic and Roman.

⟨Аа Аа⟩ /a/ жиа jia
⟨Ее Ее⟩ /e̞/ жие jie
⟨Ии Ии⟩ /i/ жии jii
⟨Оо Оо⟩ /o̞/ жио jio
⟨Уу Уу⟩ /u/ жиу jiu
⟨Кк Кк⟩ /k/ жика jika
⟨Тт Тт⟩ /t/ жита jita
⟨Пп Пп⟩ /p/ жипа jipa
⟨Чч Чч⟩ /tʃ/ жича jica
⟨Гг Гг⟩ /g/ жига jiga
⟨Дд Дд⟩ /d/ жида jida
⟨Бб Бб⟩ /b/ жиба jiba
⟨Жж Жж⟩ /dʒ/ жижа jija
⟨Хх Хх⟩ /h/ жиха jiha
⟨Сс Сс⟩ /s/ жиса jisa
⟨Фф Фф⟩ /f/ жифа jipa
⟨Мм Мм⟩ /m/ жима jima
⟨Нн Нн⟩ /n/ жина jina
⟨Ң ң Ң ң⟩ жианг jiang (or жина и дел пенсу jina i del pensu “N with descender”)
If this letter is unavailable, it can be replaced with a digraph нг.
⟨Лл Лл⟩ /l/ жила jila
⟨Йй Йй⟩ /j/ жии пончас jii poncas “letter I with breve”)
⟨Яя Яя⟩ /ja/ жия jiya
⟨Ёё Ёё⟩ /jo/ жиё jiyo
⟨Юю Юю⟩ /ju/ жию jiyu
⟨Вв Вв⟩ /w/ жива jiwa
⟨Рр Рр⟩ /r/ жира jira

When spelling out words or reading acronyms, it is acceptable to omit the word ⟨жи⟩ ji “letter, symbol”. So, to spell out the word ⟨камай⟩ kamay “shop, store” one could say ⟨ка а ма а и пончас⟩ ka a ma a i poncas.

Raba delmuy (compound words)
Bakom commonly uses compounds words, where multiple roots or compounding elements are combined to form new words, like English football from foot and ball.

There are a few rules for where to include spaces in compound words:

If the describing word is a stative verb, a space is written.
For instance ⟨сим бо⟩ sim bo “contentment”, from ⟨сим⟩ “heart” (a noun) and ⟨бо⟩ “good” (a stative verb).

Words like this are always written after a space.
For instance ⟨жи домё да⟩ ji domyo da “capital letter”, where ⟨домё да⟩ “large version” is written after a space because ⟨да⟩ “large” is a stative verb.

If the compound could easily be replaced with a phrase using a stative verb such as ⟨е⟩ e “of/to/for” or ⟨та⟩ ta “on” or ⟨со⟩ so “as”, it is written with a space.

The compounding base ⟨о⟩ o is never followed by a space.

Compounds with the prefixes ⟨но⟩ no “un-, non-” or ⟨те⟩ te “more, -er” are treated as one compounding element for the purposes of spacing.

 

Lo ji domyo da (rules of capitalization)
Capitalization (Bakom: ji domyo da “large version letter”) is always optional, but there are certain situations where its use is stylistically encouraged.

At the beginning of a sentence:

О а сум бивчаи.
O a sum biwcay.

“He/she drinks tea.”

For personal names:

Си ма он Софиа пе жо?
Si ma on Sofia pe jo?
“Have you seen Sofía?”

For any foreign word:

Ми а тең Баклава е бе.
Mi a teng Baklava e be.
“I would like the baklava, please.”

In acronyms and abbreviations, in which case each individual element receives a letter: (However, acronyms should always be read out as the full words, never as the letters themselves.)

ДЧ1 (decu un) “Monday”, ПСА (paysemamik) “the U.S.A.”, Д28Л8С2016 (de tuday pat lu pat san tumil day sis) “August 28th, 2016”, etc.

 

Lojipon (rules of punctuation)
The only obligatory punctuation marks are the period (Bakom: jipon hol “complete punctuation mark”) and the comma (Bakom: jipon so del “partial punctuation mark”).

The period ⟨.⟩ is used after every sentence. It is not used between letters in acronyms.

The comma ⟨,⟩ has two main uses.
One is before a subordinate clause (all subordinate clauses have the words ⟨ва⟩ wa or ⟨ван⟩ wan, so they are easy to spot). This does not mean that a pause is pronounced, but simply serves to increase readability.

Ми а он си та вак, ва го ми ме ве.
Mi a on si ta wak, wa go mi me we.
“I saw you when I was walking along the street.”

Ми а ба е си пе жо, ми ван по ва са басапан.
Mi a ba e si pe jo, mi wan po wa sa basapan.
“I told you that I don’t speak Spanish.”

The other use is between items in a list. A comma is placed after each item, akin to the Oxford Comma in English. (Note that no word translating English “and” is used.)

комал и пожонив ё силде, ронхав, ронав
komal i pojoniw yo silde, ronhaw, ronaw
“renewable resources such as sun, wind, and hydroelectric”

То ин а и хак кай, ав, хам, кабот.
To in a i hak kay, aw, ham, kabot.
“Every person has a right to food, water, shelter, and dignity.”

A comma can also be used in any other circumstance in order to mark an important division of the sentence, such as before a quotation or to interject a comment.

Огижан ми, ва е гимен бо ри да, а жав китап та.
Ogijan mi, wa e gimen bo ri da, a yap kitap ta.
“My teacher, who is very helpful, is writing a book.”

The exclamation mark ⟨!⟩ (Bakom: jipon bepak, “command punctuation mark”) is optionally used to mark commands, which always have the particles ya or yan.

The question mark ⟨?⟩ (Bakom: jipon bejan, “question punctuation mark”) is optionally used to mark yes-or-no questions, and questions with a question word like mo “what”.

There are also quotation marks ⟨« »⟩ (Bakom: ji mal baway “quotation letter”). The quotation marks always are placed before or within other punctuation marks, and no space is used.
A quote-within-a-quote uses the same quotation marks, which can result in two of the same mark, for instance ⟨»»⟩, appearing side by side.