Camka (Displacement)

Displacement (Bakom: camka, “changing place”) is a means by which a phrase is taken out of the main sentence and placed before it. This serves to change the emphasis of the sentence, in a way that’s similar to using the passive voice in English. The displaced phrase is always followed by a comma.

Usually, it is an object that is displaced, but a verb-complement phrase or a subordinate clause with wa/wan can also be displaced.

Examples without object displacement:

Ne in wa ti a wal we.
[that] [person] [PARTICLE] [show up] [PARTICLE] [choose] [way]
“Those who show up make decisions.”
Here, emphasis is placed on the action wal we “make decisions” rather than who is doing the action.

Si a gi noju e mi.
[you] [PARTICLE] [give] [disgust] [to] [me]
“You disgust me.”
In this sentence, emphasis is placed on gi noju, “disgust”, rather than the person who is disgusted.

Examples with object displacement:

We, ne in wa ti a wal.
[way], [that] [person] [PARTICLE] [show up] [choose]
“Decisions are made by those who show up.”
(literally) “The way, it’s chosen by people who show up.”
The implication here is that people who show up make decisions, but people who don’t show up don’t make decisions.

E mi, si a gi noju.
[to] [me], [you] [PARTICLE] [give] [disgust]
“Me, you disgust.”
The implication here is that the speaker mi is disgusted while someone else may not be.

Mi a i sim wa sa tomo ra yu ay, en wa sa ne ra, mi an i sim.
[I] [PARTICLE] [have] [heart] [PARTICLE] [do] [any] [thing] [because of] [love], [but] [PARTICLE] [do] [that] [thing], [I] [PARTICLE.NEGATIVE] [have] [heart]
“I am willing to do anything for love, but to do that, I am not willing.”

A phrase cannot be displaced if it is directly describing another noun. For instance, in the sentence U kitap a bo “This book is good”, the stative verb bo “good” cannot be displaced to make Bo, u kitap a “Good, this book is.”

However, if a phrase describes a verb, it can be displaced. U kitap a tebo e ne kitap “This book is better than that book” can be rephrased as E ne kitap, u kitap a tebo. “Compared with that book, this book is better”, because e ne kitap “than that book” is describing the verb tebo “better”.


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